Tuesday, April 2, 2019
Global Migration: Analysis of Stephen Castles (2004)
Global Migration Analysis of Stephen Castles (2004)Do you agree with Stephen Castles (2004) that migration policies distri just nowe? If so, wherefore? If not, wherefore not?IntroductionMigration is atomic number 53 of the most all- classical(a) issues in international administration in 21st nose pukedy. In 2013, there were close to 232 m unfortunateion people-3.2 percent of migrants in the world and it has been increase since 1990 with 154million to 175million until 2000.1 hatful cross b armys to vex better opportunities, to escape poverty and go for a better life for their families. an other(prenominal) reasons might be civil wars, conflicts or geographical problems ca uptaked by environmental degradation.2 However, diachronicly, the characteristic of migration began to change since sixteenth century when the European countries stgraphicsed to expand. Moreover form nineteenth century until the First initiation War, there was a massive lawsuit from European countrie s to join the States.3 In addition, the twist of migrants has been dramatically increasing after 1945. Meanwhile, in Britain, Western Europe, Australia and in North America the semipolitical concern more than(prenominal)(prenominal) or less unwanted migrants and migration manoeuvre issue train become parts of as high government beca social occasion migration problems were affecting relations between conjure ups in 1960s and mid-seventies.4 Especially, in eighties and 1990s there were intensive efforts in chastenessling migration in more essential countries and they were trying to establish multi afterwardsal or international linguistic rule system on migration.5 However, despite these efforts to control migration, due to the increasing subroutine of mental hospital seekers especially in Western Europe and Australia have built a public perception that migration policies have tendencies to fail.6 Moreover, in the United States, the number of illegal migrants has be en forever increasing since 1960s and there ar nigh 11millinion who ar illegally living in the US right away.7 then(prenominal) it would be measurable to suspense how migration policies buy the farm in the international politics today.Stephen Castles argues it is key to examine the elements that drive such(prenominal) migration operationes. con chassis to Castles there ar vertical just about three main(prenominal) reasons that drive migration form _or_ system of government misfortune factors arising from the social dynamics of the migratory mould, globalization, and North-South relationships and factors within political systems.8The purpose of this essay is to evaluate Castles arguings on why migration policies fail. It exit offset printing start with explaining Castles key arguments on why migration policies fail, and evaluating his view on policy failure. It impart then rap Castles argument by using Gary freemans argument on in-migration politics in hea vy(a) popular countries. plain though freemans argument of migration polices in slack democratic states is more applicable than Castles argument it will conclude by criticising both Castles and Freemans abstract exemplars on migration policies.Factors Unmake Migration Policy One of the dominant approaches in forming migration policies until these old age is neoclassical supposition. It has had played historic role in forming migration policies and it is indeed chief(prenominal) role in migration studies.9 This theory is focuses on why individuals migrate from one country to another by using comparison of the relative be and benefits of remaining home or moving.10 The key assumptions of neoclassical theory is that likely migrants have good knowledge of wage level and job opportunities in terminal countries and that economic factor ar the most important reasons for potential migrants.11 It is also often defined as push-pull factors. Push-factors are economic, political h ardships in most poor states and developing countries, and pull-factors include comparative benefits in developed countries such as political freedoms, better economic and calling opportunities.12 The theory sees migrants as commercialize-players who have all information for their options and freedom to make rational choices.13 Such assumption of the theory however have been criticised that it does not support proper evidence to explain or prove actual migration movements today and also predicting migration movement for the future.Stephen Castles argues that neoclassical approach to migration enables to achieve appropriate migration policies because it ignores historical experience of migration movements.14 jibe to Castles, there are mainly three reasons that fail migration policies today. Castles argues that it is important to understand historical experiences when setting immigration policies because it gives a better consciousness to analyse the migration issues.15 Castles p roposes a good example how guest bestowers policy failed in Ger numerous in 1970s. At that time, policy makers recruited guest spend a pennyers based on acting(prenominal) residence principles that were formed when they were setting policies for guest workers. Even though employment opportunity declined, those unwanted guest workers never returned to their countries, but rather, brought in their families and at brave ended up staying for the tenacious period of time and became as minority in Ger umteen.16Castles insight is that once migration processes start they will continue and expand as an ongoing social process. He argues that families and their networks play crucial role in affecting potential migration to make a decision to migrate to destination countries. He argues that all migrants are not just individuals who react to market but social beings who are trying to seek for better outcomes for their lives by actively and continuously building migration processes. Moreov er, Castles argues that there are structural dependencies in both sending and receiving states. In many developing countries there are tendencies to support encourage people to move to other states in pronounce to reduce unemployment and in receiving countries there are structural tendencies that they need low-skilled labours in piece to fulfil jobs that many local not willing to do.17 Other factor that unmakes migration policy in Castles words is globalization and the division of North and South. Especially, Castles emphases that globalization and recent North-South relations play important role in judgement international migration flow today. The number of migrants in North has been increasing and it is mainly Castles says because of the immense gap of dissimilitude between North and South. Migration policies will always fail if they properly address reasons and mannikins of economic and force migration movement of global inequality.18 Moreover, Castles insight is that globa lization has an inherent structure that widens the gap between and North and South and cultural and technological systemal mean of overcoming this gap. Moreover, because of national logic inherence especially in European Countries, transnational networks would undermine migration control.19 The last factor that causes policy failure according to Castles is political system. Migration policy process and transnational networks should be related to an analysis how migration policies formed in states and supranational bodies including examining posts, how they are articulated and how political system functions because this is where most policy failure or as he name fortuitous consequences of policy could be explained.20 In addition, Castles says that most migration policies have tendencies to form for short-term for electoral periods and that it should be changed into long-term as migration is a long-term process. In addition, a huge gap of wealth and and power in the emerging global order mean that not all citizens are equal and this might be the basis of a juvenile system of global economic stratifi vomition.21 In Castles argues that migration is all about regulating North-south relationships and maintaining inequality. He argues that migration control will be successful when the gap of inequality will be reduced in the future.22Given the Castles three main perspectives on migration failure above, it shows that he focuses on more structural change of social process and on required circumstances ca utilize by those social changes and globalization that produces gap and inequality of North-South. It could be said that Castles argument is gigantic and customary, and as he defined it as a normative sense. His definition failure of migration policies seems to be more unintended failure that caused by those factors noted above. His view on inequality of North-South that drive by globalization seems to have preferably sceptical view on liberal ideology and on those receiving liberal states (North) which he believes is one of the main factors to make people to migrate to other countries today. In this sense, Castles argument on inequality of North-South does not give much answer to a question why migration policies fail. His argument is too vague, b alley and frequent that it fails in terms of giving specific and persuasive explanation on migration failure. What he argues about policy failure is rather inherent and natural phenomena caused by inequality than more realistic. It is true that the number of migrants from South moving to North is the prompt maturation looking at migration trends today as Castles argued.23 Then it leads to an important question how immigration politics and policies might function in liberal democratic countries.Gap Hypothesis of Migration PolicyThe term gap conjecture is when implementations of immigration control policies have assorted outcomes as they were do in the first place and such gap between sta ted policies and their results are growing wider.24 One of the most notable arguments of gap hypothesis is Gary Freeman arguments on how migration policies work in liberal democratic states. Freemans perspective is focused on more domestic structure of migration countries.25 According to Freeman in liberal democratic countries the number of migrants has been continuously growing despite of public negative opinion on migrants. He says that it is because in most liberal democracies immigration policies are never reflected by general public they are ignored and information on migration is quite indisposed articulated.26 It leads to an interesting question who, then distributes and influences in forming migration policy in those countries.27 According to Freeman there are three factors that affect policy devising procedure in liberal democratic countries-individual voters, organized group and state actors. He suggests that in order to have a better understanding on what forces migrati on polices it is important to understand how public officials interact with organized groups during elections because in democratic states as he says, organized groups have power to control politics of immigration.28 Organized opinion is more applicable because it reflects the distribution on costs and benefits of immigration and they have much more impact than general public because in politics vote-maximizers find it in their electoral interest to fulfil it.29 Freeman defines it as client-politics. In client politics, particular or well organized groups have strong interests in working with officials who have responsibilities in reservation migration policies. Most active and influential actors and beneficiaries are employers who are dependent on unskilled workforce, businesses and ethnic groups are a constituency with important resources that can advocate their interest.30 Others, who have to bear their costs, do not have such position to influence policy makers and general publ ic who have to compete with jobs, housing, school and government services have difficulties to solve such problems, and face difficulties in influencing immigration policies.31 Such environment of policy reservation process in liberal democratic countries leads to a structure where migration clients can actually influence migration policy making process and where immigration policies are influenced by groups who actually benefit from them.Freemans argument on how client politics works in liberal democratic is sure more applicable than Castles view, because it focuses on how migration policies actually function in liberal democratic states. Freeman argues that migration policy making process is influenced by migration politics which involves particular actors distribute in making. Such client politics pretence in liberal democratic countries shows why immigration policies tendencies of different outcomes.Even though Freemans model of client politics more acceptable, still there is a lack of providing light uper framework in order to explain on migration issues today. It is more bias of those classical migrant societies such as United States, Canada and Australia. This also leaves quite sceptical view whether Freemans conceptual framework will always work for other emerging migrant countries in the future. Freemans insight is that new emerging migration states will follow those liberal democratic states when forming migration policies because migration policy making process and structure of liberal democratic countries. However, Freeman does not comprise much attention to asylum seeker and its policies in those liberal democratic states. According to James Hampshire, in order to explain asylum seekers and why states receive them is more a complicated issue because there will be other actors and organizations who are going to be involved.32 It is then, hard to hold back Freemans argument of migrant politics. According to United Nations gamy Commission for Refugees asylum trends report 2012, the United States, France, United Kingdom, Germany and Sweden were the hap vanadium receiving states, together accounting for more than 57% of all new asylum claims submitted in 44 industrialized countries.33 The overall numbers of asylum seekers were about 274,200 in 2012. It cl earlier shows that Freemans framework of does not exit clear explanation of asylum seekers and its policies in migration politics either.ConclusionStephen Castles argument on why migration policies fail gives a good explanation on how migration is processed and how has been historically changing. He argues that migration should be perceived as a social process that has inherence of changing continuously once migration process starts. Castles argues how globalization and division of North-South affects contemporary migration process, and how the gap of inequality between North-South continuously widens. Migration policy failure might be unintended but because of politic al system within receiving countries. The problem with Castles argument is that it could be too b lane and general to analyse migration policy failure in receiving countries.Freemans client politics seems to be more applicable in terms of explaining migration politics, policy failure in liberal democratic states and also in terms of how organized groups are influential and involved in policy making process in those countries. However, Freemans argument framework of immigration politics is also problematic because he fails explaining asylum seeker policies which are quite moot issues these days. Moreover, as noted above, there is quite huge number of asylum seekers and liberal democratic countries are the top five receiving states in the world. Both Castles and Freemans argument provide some perusable explanation of migration policies, however, both of them fail in terms of providing clear explanation of complex issues of migration policies today. There are other scholars who have d ifferent perspective on how migration politics, however, due to the limits of this essay it was heavily focused on Castles and Freeman view on how migration politics work and why immigration policies fail.BibliographyCastles, S miller, M (2009) The Age of Migration worldwide Population Movements in the novel World, Palgrave MacmillanCastles, S (2004) The Factors That Make and Unmake Migration Policies, international Migration Review, Vol. 38, p.852-884Castles, S (2004) Why Migration Policies let on, Ethnic and racial Studies, vol.27,pp. 205-227Cornelius, W. A. (Ed.) (2004) Controlling in-migration A Global Perspective, Stanford University Press,Freeman, G (1995) Modes of in-migration Policies in fine-looking Democratic States, International Migration Review, vol.29, pp.881-901Hampshire, J (2008) Disembedding Liberalism? from Givens, T., Leal, D. L. (Eds.), immigration Policy and Security US, European, and Commonwealth Perspectives. RoutledgePew Research U.S. Unauthorized in -migration Population Trends, 1990-2012 (http//www.pewhispanic.org/2013/09/23/unauthorized-trends/All) (accessed on 23.03.14)Portes, A Borocz, J (1989) Contemporary Immigration Theoretical Perspectives on Its Determinants and Modes of Incorporation, International Migration Review, vol. 23,pp.606-630United Nations, Trends in International Migrant Stock (http//esa.un.org/unmigration/wallchart2013.htm) (accessed on 23.0314)UNCHR Asylum Trends 2012 Levels and Trends in Industrialized Countries, (http//www.tagesschau.de/ausland/unhcr108.pdf) (accessed on 25.03.14)11 United Nations, Trends in International Migrant Stock (http//esa.un.org/unmigration/wallchart2013.htm) (accessed on 23.0314)2 S. Castles M. Miller (2009) The Age of Migration International Population Movements in the raw World, Palgrave Macmillan, p.23 S. Castles M. Miller (2009) p.34 S. Castles(2004) The Factors That Make and Unmake Migration Policies, International Migration Review, Vol. 38, p.856-8575 S. Castles(2004) p.8576 S. Castles(2004) p.8577 Pew Research U.S. Unauthorized Immigration Population Trends, 1990-2012 (http//www.pewhispanic.org/2013/09/23/unauthorized-trends/All) (accessed on 23.03.14)8 S. Castles(2004)Why Migration Policies Fail, Ethnic and racial Studies, vol.27, p.2089 S. Castles M. Miller (2009) pp.21-2210 S. Castles M. Miller (2009) pp.21-2211 S. Castles M. Miller (2009) pp.21-2212 A. Portes J.Borocz, (1989) Contemporary Immigration Theoretical Perspectives on Its Determinants and Modes of Incorporation, International Migration Review, vol. 23, p.60713 S. Castles M. Miller (2009) p.2314 S. Castles(2004) p.20815 S. Castles(2004)Why Migration Policies Fail, Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol.27, p.208-20916 S. Castles (2004) p.208, Cornelius, W. A. (Ed.) (2004) Controlling Immigration A Global Perspective, Stanford University Press, pp.225-23017 S. Castles (2004) The Factors That Make and Unmake Migration Policies, International Migration Review, vol. 38, pp.860-86118 S. Cas tles(2004) p.22319 S. Castles(2004) pp. 210-21220 S. Castles(2004) p.22321 S. Castles(2004) p.22322 S. Castles(2004) pp. 212-22323 S. Castles(2004) p.21024 Cornelius, W. A. (Ed.) (2004) pp.4-525 J. Hampshire (2008) Disembedding Liberalism? from Givens, T., Leal, D. L. (Eds.), Immigration Policy and Security US, European, and Commonwealth Perspectives. Routledge, pp.110-11126 G. Freeman(1995) Modes of Immigration Policies in Liberal Democratic States, International Migration Review, vol.29, pp.882-88327 G. Freeman(1995) p.88328 G. Freeman(1995) p.88529 G. Freeman(1995) p.88630 J. Hampshire (2008) p.11231 G. Freeman(1995) p.88532 J. Hampshire (2008) pp.112-11333 UNCHR Asylum Trends 2012 Levels and Trends in Industrialized Countries (http//www.tagesschau.de/ausland/unhcr108.pdf) (accessed on 25.03.14)Roy Lichtenstein fraud Style AnalysisRoy Lichtenstein Art Style AnalysisA work is created when it is active over a period of time, the portion of it that has been fixed at any particula r time constitutes the work as of that time, and where the work has been prepared in different versions, each version constitutes a separate. ( facsimileright.gov). A differential work is a work based upon one or more preexisting works art reproduction in which a work may be recast, transformed, or adapted or other modifications, which, as a whole, represent an sea captain work of authorship, is a derivative work. (copyright.gov). flavor at the many pieces of Roy Lichtensteins art and researching the terms created and derivative, he is seen to be controversial because many people consider him to be a copy cat mechanic. At the time Lichtenstein was producing his prints in question there were copyright laws in effect but it seems that they were never put into action. The Boston Globe produced a story about Lichtenstein titled Roy Lichtenstein Creator or Copy mold? Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein 2000 David Barsaolu MFA. That article is not the first of its kind the first article was produced January 31, 1964 by Life magazine titled, Is He the Worst Artist in America? After reading these articles and looking at the prints I noticed that they do have a very close resemblance to what the United States copy right laws prohibit. I happen to think not but I am sure that as there are as many admires of his art and talent as there are probably just as many who disagree with my opinion. I find it quite ambitious that not one of the workmans has sued Mr. Lichtenstein for monetary reimbursement or even document to situate out of court. Maybe at that time there was some sort of loop holes for creative art that kept copyright laws at bay. whatever the reason Roy has become very well known and make a great living with his art.The 1940s were the beginning of Lichtensteins career as an artist with is first drawing class in 1941 at Ohio State University forward to that he graduated from Franklin, then studied anatomical drawing at the Art Students League and participa ted in a fewer exhibitions, then he was drafted in to the U.S. Army in 1943 and sketched some works of soldiers and landscapes. His father becomes ill and dies January of 1946 dies. Roy is discharged from the Army late January. Lichtenstein spends theses 10 grades getting form-only(prenominal) training and taking part in many exhibitions. June 12, 1949 Roy marries Isabel Wilson. The 1950 was quite a family for getting established and becoming a known artist for Roy, he held many jobs from 1951-1957 some of them lasting only a few months, and his first son is born in 1954. Roy continues to be seen at exhibitions but at more popular venues with better known artists. In 1956 Roy creates his first photo pop work by lithograph Ten dollar Bill and in March his second son is born. In 1957 Roy begins to use abstract expression style in his impressions familiar work is Donald Duck. abstract entity paintings are shown for the first time in June 1959. January 1961 he exhibits abstract p aintings made with a torn bed sheet by applying paint to them. Then by and by that summertime Look Mickey is the first of a dialog box from a comic strip that is pained with Benday dots made from a dog brush dipped in paint, you can see he also uses his first balloon dialogue. Roy then creates his first consumer paintings for advertisers, tries new techniques tondo painting, diptych painting, and no-good with white to duplicate reproductions. 1961 proved to be a great year in October Roy received a $400.00 a month stipend from the king of beasts Castelli Gallery and has a trial separation from his wife. In 1962 he begins to use turpentine soluble acrylic paint but did not travel away from oil paint for the simulated Benday dots. Early summer of 1962 Roys pen drawings are shown for the first time and his consumer goods and comic strip art is shown early fall on the west coast in a gallery. In 1963 Roy pained his first large scale work and it was commissioned by Philip Johnson to create a mural, for the New York State Pavilion at the 1964 Worlds Fair in Flushing Meadows, New York. Roys first European exhibition was later that summer. Roy divorces his wife in 1965 and she take custody of the kids he then creates a series of ceramic heads with co artist Hui Ka Kwong, experiments with modern motif and that gloam stops working with ceramics. In 1966 Roy stops putting words on his canvas, in April Roy illustrates the cover of Newsweek magazine the entire edition is devoted to pouch Art, and in the autumn 1967 he collaborates to create a series of sculptures made of brass, tinted glass, marble and other materials. In 1968 he creates is first repeated soma modular paintings and stretcher frame paintings, Time magazine cover features Kennedy painting and a Rendering of a Gun at the end of the year he married Dorothy Herzka. In Osaka, Japan seascape films are shown in 1970 that Roy filmed and he sold painting 6 for $75,000.00 the highest paid for work of art at tha t time for any living artist. In 1971 Mirrors was shown publicly, his films of seascapes were shown, and in ducted in to the American Academy of Arts and Science in Boston.1973 trompe-loeil and cubist Still Lifes are used with faux wood grain pattern for the first time, 1974 begins influenced work by Italian Futurism, and entablatures series using all-metal colors mixing sand with paint to highlight surface texture. 1975 starts a series influenced by Purists Artists, 1976 paints Office Still Lifes, Completes Entablature Paintings, creates many self-portraits in futuristic style, and Warhol creates a silkscreen Lichtenstein. 1977 Roy starts a series based on Surrealists artists, Skowhegan laurel for Painting is awarded, and BMW commissions Roy to design outside of hunt car later compulsive in the year at Le Mans. In 1980 Roy is awarded honorary doctorate of Fine Arts from Southampton College in New York and in 1980 paintings and sculpture and from 1970s and 80s are touring Amer ica, Europe and Japan and 1989 his painting Torpedo.Los sold for 5.5 million association two other living artists whose work brings in as much. In 1990 Roy begins and Interior series painted with sponges that are shown in 1991, commissioned in 1992 for a 64 foot high sculpture for the Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain. In 1993 Roy contributes a cover image for Fredrick Tutens book, creates two giant pieces of art, Grrrrrrrrrr appears on the front of ARTnews, and begins a series of nude female works. April 30, 1997 the last audience ever given by Roy, Singapore Brushstroke is the last constructed artwork installed, and folk 29, Roy Lichtenstein dies.I chose three pieces of work from three different time periods in Roys life as a focus. Each piece is from a period that is important how he creates his work and how he develops his style. Washington Crossing the Delaware 1 is oil on canvas 26*32 in 1951, is a form of abstract expressionist and is painted very child like. George Washi ngs is what catches your nerve centre at the front of the boat. All the lines are simple and the people are drawn simple and the colors are dark. The BMW 320i that was designed for the Le Mans 24-hour race in 1977 was clearly a car that had already seen what was on the road ahead by looking at the sun shining and the stretches of road on it. You see his style of the comic strip on it with the long lines suggesting super speed and his famous Benday dots on the design. Last I chose the Barcelona Head 1992 as the last to show that no matter what the media he uses and what he does that since he has developed his style he continues with consistency. The sculpture was was through with(p) in the spirit of the Catalan architect Antonio Gaudi and placed on the rebuilt weewee front.What I have not touched on is that Roy is considered controversial because many of his works of art are out right copy cats and that he was never accused by the original artist but was later confronted by articl es about his work. I dont have a opinion about this and not much to say on the matter but it was his early practice to copy Picassos work also. I perceive it of his style and I do know that what he has created on his own is very original and wonderful to admire and pleasing to the eye at least for meSources usedRoy Lichtenstein Creator or Copy Cat? Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein. David Barsaolu MFA. 2000. January 28, 2010. http//www.flickr.com/photos/deconstructingroylichtenstein/395941200/.www.HYPERLINK http//www.copyright.gov/title17. January 28copyright.govHYPERLINK http//www.copyright.gov/title17. January 28/title17. January 28, 2010.http//www.image-duplicator.com/main.php?decade=80. January 29, 2010.Lawrence, Alloway, Roy Lichtenstein, Modern Master Series Vol I, Cross River Press LTD, 1983.